The meeting followed up on a promise made at the Moscow Conferences of 1943 to create an international organization to succeed the 1919 League of Nations. The Yalta and San Francisco conferences in 1945 moved the negotiations along. The latter yielded the UN Charter, which was signed on Jun 26, 1945, by the representatives of 50 countries. Poland, which was not represented at the conference, signed it later and became one of the original 51 UN member states. The United Nations came into being on Oct 24, 1945.
The Permanent Five of the UNSC are the major allied nations of WWII – the United States, Russia (previously USSR), China, France, and Great Britain. Each member has veto power over any proposal brought before the Council, giving the five members the power to prevent attempts to abolish it.
The attempts in the now 193-nation body have continued unabated over the years, with the call made in the UN General Assembly in Nov 2018 echoing previous demands: “To meet emerging challenges of today’s increasingly complex international security and peace architecture, the United Nations Security Council must adapt, reform and expand its membership to include underrepresented regions, particularly Africa.”
Delegates have called for solutions that include broadening the number of permanent members beyond the current five, and abolishing the permanent membership’s use of veto power to overrule the adoption of draft resolutions and preserve their power.
The Security Council is not representative of the geopolitical realities of the modern world, according to the Global Policy Forum. Both Africa and Latin America lack a permanent seat on the Council, while Europe is overrepresented and Asia is underrepresented. The organization notes that these problems are not easily addressed because the Permanent Five do not want to see their power diminished.
#23159 Published: 07/04/2019